Posts Tagged ‘ Obesity ’

Which Comes First, Cardio or Weights? Book by Author

May 28, 2012

So you’ve made your final decision and you will begin an exercise program to reduce the weight you have gained over the years. But you have also decided that you will need to do some reading and prepare yourself for what you are about to do. You are looking for a book that has the most recent scientific studies on exercise, and you’re also looking for information in the same book on how to reduce injuries.  Well I have the perfect book for you, it gets right down to the basic concepts of exercise, whether or not you’re new at this or simply would like to refresh your understanding on the body’s ability to adapt to exercise, I recommend you getting a copy of “Which Comes First, Cardio or Weights?” Written by Alex Hutchinson. Many questions that come to mind, to people in barking on a new exercise program and especially if it’s been years since high school.  They have been too busy raising a family and working full time to even consider exercising in their spare time.
How long does it take to get back in shape?  Do I need to hire a personal trainer?  Am I able to lift weights?  Can I just simply get toned up without bulking up?  How do I breathe while exercising?  How should I warm up before exercising?  Are there any benefits to yoga?  What can I do about the aches and pains after my workout?  And many more questions are answered in this book.
Your two things you need to do, first talk to your doctor before beginning any exercise program and educate yourself before beginning, do this with” Which Comes First,Cardio or Weights?

That’s my comment, pass it on
Dr. Anthony

 

Which Comes First, Cardio or Weights?: Fitness Myths, Training Truths, and Other Surprising Discoveries from the Science of Exercise

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Fat is a prejudice issue

May 4, 2012

Are you fat! It’s a shame that our societies treat people that are over-weight with such disrespect.  This attitude to alienate individuals who are obese continues to linger despite  organizations attempt to educate the ignorant. Isn’t it time we bury discrimination in sand?

http://www.yepod.com/?p=49558

thats my comment …pass it on,

Dr Anthony

Yepod.com


Powered by Guardian.co.ukThis article titled “Fat is a prejudice issue” was written by Susie Orbach, for guardian.co.uk on Thursday 3rd May 2012 14.10 UTC

A new study shows significant levels of discrimination towards fat people at work. No surprise, perhaps, when we live in a fat-phobic world. Today fat has become not a description of size but a moral category tainted with criticism and contempt.

Fat shaming is a new and vicious sport. Fat youngsters in Georgia have their photos pasted on billboards like mug shots. Children and their parents are being shamed for looking different than the thousands of Photoshopped pictures we see weekly on our screens, phone, computers, laptops and magazines. No wonder society has a thing about fat. Fat people are so rarely included in visual culture that fat is perceived as a blot on the landscape of sleek and slim.

Today our idea of fat is imbued with disease, indulgence, poverty, disregard for personal dignity and sloppiness. In recent characterisations, fat is a signal of determined self-abuse and the cause of preventable diseases such as cancer, heart attacks and strokes.

But is it true? Part of what drives this prejudice is a denial of the evidence that demonstrates that it is not fat per se that is a health problem. Indeed, a 2005 study led by Katherine Flegal of the Centres for Disease Control in the US found that people in the “overweight” category of 25-30 BMI (where Brad Pitt and George Clooney sit) demonstrate a lower death rate than their peers who are of “normal” weight.

Thin isn’t good and fat bad. Stable weight, for example, causes far less stress to the heart than going up and down the scales in weight. Thin people with health issues don’t get demonised for their size. Thank goodness. But then neither should fat people.

When it comes to looking for a job, there is, as this study shows, serious discrimination. Our idea of a healthy body is so destabilised that insecure people have come to bolster their own bodies by deeming others – those with fat bodies – less worthy, less capable and less employable.

Fat people are regarded as less successful at restraint. The paradox of consumer culture is that we should and must consume – our economy depends on it – but we should at the same time do so discreetly and expensively. Fat challenges this idea. Fat dares to show. Fat is disdained because it is read as greed and an inability to choose or say no.

Of course fat doesn’t really say or imply such things, but surrounded by images of perfected bodies, invitingly displaying the hugely expensive and lavishly marketed goodies that we are roused to desire, fat becomes the vehicle on to which we project all the ugly aspects of our over-consumption and hunger for objects. Consumer society tantalises us. We then try within ourselves to control the needs that are being constantly stimulated. We value holding back and then assign to fat people the contempt we can feel for our own longings. It’s not unlike other forms of discrimination. Things we don’t like or discipline in ourselves we choose to see in others, and in another group. In this case, people who have nothing in common except for their size.

Fat looks on the surface as though it is about a failure of restraint. It isn’t actually any more an issue of restraint than it is for many thin or medium-sized people. Most eating problems don’t show. Fat, which may or may not mean an eating problem, does. That doesn’t make it immoral or contemptible. It doesn’t mean the fat individual has faulty judgment or inferior leadership skills. It certainly doesn’t sanction discrimination. What it does demonstrate is that cruelty and stupidity arises when we are pressed to make our bodies into uniform shapes. This creates widespread body anxiety, and makes us search for a scapegoat to feel secure. We know from other forms of discrimination what a fruitless and lousy deal that is.

guardian.co.uk © Guardian News & Media Limited 2010

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How the world fell in love with quick-fix weight loss

February 25, 2012

Diet tube

There are many individuals who have tried all sorts of quick weight loss programs with poor results. In the end…many have turned to plastic surgery to attain the body they have always hoped for. Perhaps we are too impatient to shed the weight over the next 12 months…remember it has taken years to gain the weight…so it can take some time to take it off. Good old fashion calorie control and exercise is the best way to go. Tried not to succumb to the temptation of diet pills,quick weight loss fads,and plastic surgery. Slow and steady…you can reach your desire weight…

That’s my comment..pass it on

Dr Anthony

Yepod.com

http://www.yepod.com/?p=35321    


Powered by Guardian.co.ukThis article titled “How the world fell in love with quick-fix weight loss” was written by Amanda Mitchison, for The Guardian on Friday 24th February 2012 23.00 UTC

Ginevra Tamberi, a 21-year-old film studies student from Rome, has very tall, very skinny parents. Her brother can eat 4,000 calories a day and remains one of nature’s giraffes. But Ginevra is not so lucky. She eats one slice of bread and it goes down her throat and directly on to her bum.

Ginevra tried everything: the Aktins diet, the Dukan diet, the Scarsdale diet, the Zone diet, the cabbage diet, the onion diet. She saw a private nutritionist and a personal trainer. All to no avail.

In desperation she visited the plastic surgeon Marco Gasparotti. Ginevra says, “Everybody in Rome knows Gasparotti.” And everybody does, too: you cannot throw a brick in Italy and not hit Dr Gasparotti demonstrating his innovative techniques on some TV chat show. For Gasparotti is no slouch; he has a liposuction cannula to his name and has patented an elastocompressive cellulite-busting girdle called the Lipo Contour Elite Capri. He has also garnered countless international awards, and is at the very forefront of innovative ways of redraping skin and sucking out and resculpting fat that cannot be described to readers looking at this magazine over breakfast.

Ginevra went to Gasparotti for liposuction. She wanted, as it were, to be vacuumed down a couple of dresses sizes. But Gasparotti was not encouraging – liposuction, he said, was for improving shape and contour, not for comprehensive fat removal. Instead, Gasparotti had another, better trick up his sleeve: his new Diet Tube. A week later, after some medical tests, Ginevra returned to Gasparotti’s clinic and she came out with a piece of plastic tubing sticking out of her nose. One end of the tube went down into her stomach, the other was attached to a small electric pump.

For 10 days Ginevra wore the nasogastric tube. She ate nothing and the pump, working day and night, sent tiny amounts of a protein-filled liquid into her stomach to stave off hunger. The tube, she says, didn’t restrict her lifestyle. When she went out, she just popped the pump into her Prada bag and nobody in the street seemed to notice she had a tube up her nose. I find this surprising. Normally you notice when people have tubes up their noses, just as you also notice when they are wearing gas masks. But Rome is Rome.

On Diet Tube Ginevra experienced occasional moments of lassitude, but mostly she felt great. She says, “It was purifying everything. My skin was, like, unbelievable. It was so clean, so pure, like a baby’s. Amazing!” Ginevra grew used to the faint buzzing of the pump, and didn’t feel nauseous or hungry. But she did miss chewing. “So I was just having tea – green tea – all the time.”

Didn’t she get sick of the tea?

“If I see green tea now, I am going to die.”

And what did her friends think?

“They’re used to my strange stuff, my weird things.” And anything was better than the onion diet.

By the end of the 10 days, Ginevra had lost 7kg. She gave Diet Tube a break. Six months later, she had another go and lost a further 5kg. She is now a size 14, not a size 16–18. Her friends and family have also tried it. Ginevra’s aunt, another of the family’s non-giraffes, has lost 30kg. “My aunt is so happy, she could live on Diet Tube. I saw her with it and she was feeling so powerful. She was really putting herself into her cooking, making lasagne and parmigiana and polpettone and Mont Blanc.”

Last year, 1,500 patients underwent Diet Tube. Numbers are escalating – there are now eight Diet Tube clinics in Italy, centres in Barcelona, Athens and Madrid, and franchise negotiations underway for a dozen other countries, including the UK. The fact that such an outlandish procedure can flourish is hardly surprising. As a nation we are getting fatter and fatter. We are also watching too many makeover TV programmes and becoming increasingly susceptible to the idea of the quick fix. Ten Years Younger, and Extreme Makeover have a lot to answer for. Invasive beauty procedures have been normalised and there are so very many to chose from : face-lifts, eye tucks, tooth whitening, Botox, liposuction, laser, chemical peels, silicone injections, collagen red light therapy… By the time you are 50, you no longer have the face you deserve, but the face you can pay for.

The same holds true for waistlines. If, for whatever reason, you are not up to dieting or spending time in the gym, there are other short cuts. You can experiment with hypnotherapy or with algae or with Peter Foster’s spooky remedies. Or you can resort to non foods: egg white omelette, zero calorie jelly, oat bran, the abominable Dukan pancake. Or, you can take a very big breath, brace yourself and go for weight loss (or “bariatric”) surgery.

Here are the main options: gastric band, gastric balloon, gastric bypass and the relatively new gastric sleeve. I looked up my local weight-loss surgeons, the eminently respectable Bariatric Group. Their website goes into painful detail. The least invasive procedure is the gastric balloon, which fills up the patient’s stomach and gives them a feeling of fullness. The procedure is done under sedation: a silicone balloon is inserted endoscopically into the stomach and then filled up with blue saline solution. Why blue saline? Just in case the balloon bursts and starts to travel down and block up the intestines. The video voiceover says, “So if you do have a puncture and you start peeing green, then you know there’s a problem.” You bet.

The balloon is only temporary – it has to come out after six months. All the other options are permanent (though the band is reversible) and require a general anaesthetic. They all involve reducing the capacity of the stomach to a lesser or greater extent. The most extreme option is the gastric bypass, in which a section of the top of the stomach is stapled off to create a little pouch that is then attached directly to the intestine. The diagrams show just how radical this surgery is: all that the patient can use is a tiny pocket of stomach, and the now redundant, bypassed stomach and a tail of intestine are left lying there in the abdominal cavity like a dead puppy.

A gastric bypass is a major, make or break operation. Most patients are hugely fat and unfit, and 0.2% of them will die during or as a result of the operation. But the most common bariatric procedure in the UK is the gastric band, which involves an inflatable silicone ring being placed around the top of the stomach, thus reducing how much the patient can eat. The ring is connected to a filling port by a thin tube, so the band can be tightened or loosened by adding or reducing the fluid in the port.

A number of celebrities have had gastric bands: Fern Britton, Anne Diamond, Vanessa Feltz, Sharon Osbourne. But many normal mortals have also had the operation. Hollie Rogers, 23, had a gastric band fitted privately by the Bariatric Group when she was 19 and weighed 17 and a half stone (111kg). Her mum paid – nobody else knew how miserable being fat was making her.

The surgery, according to Hollie, was not a big deal. She had a pre-op diet, then one night in hospital for the operation itself and then a series of follow-up appointments at which they gradually filled up the port and tightened the band. Three years on, she has a one inch scar that “has pretty much faded.” What’s more, she is rather pleasingly bionic – with a slightly knobbly bit “underneath my boobs and above the middle of my belly button” where the port lies.

Thanks to the band, she has lost six and a half stone (41kg). The band, she says, “forces you to change your eating habits. It forces you to eat less.” In the old days, she’d have had her dinner and a couple of hours later would settle down to a takeaway or a bag of chips. Not now. “I eat the same amount as anyone who is eating healthily. And I can eat most things, except steak and bread. I mean, I can have one slice of bread, but not eight rounds of toast, which is what I did when I was overweight.”

She has never regretted the operation. She says, “I’m so glad I didn’t wait. In your 20s you want to go out and have fun. Before, I always felt I’d stand out for the wrong reason.” Hollie has released her first album. Recently, she went on a snowboarding holiday. She is having fun.

Thinnies can never know the misery and frustration suffered by the very overweight. It is a hellish cycle to be stuck in: the more you eat, the larger and hungrier you get. The larger you get, the harder it is to move and the more humiliating it is to put on a swimming costume. So you settle back and eat more. Eventually you reach the catastrophic tipping point: you are too large to exercise or even get up and down the stairs easily, and the biochemical regulatory systems in your body (the naturally released enzymes that suppress appetite) stop working properly. Now you are never sated. All you want to do is eat, eat, eat.

At this juncture, losing even as much as a stone (6.3kg) won’t do much. To make any appreciable difference to your health outcome – to reverse your type 2 diabetes, and get you off your blood pressure tablets and give your knees a rest and lower your cholesterol, you have to lose seven or nine or even 15 stone. For that, you will need to spend a very long time on a very low-calorie diet, and have the willpower of a Latin American despot.

Technically there is no reason why someone who is very heavy – 20 or 22 stone, say – should not be able to lose weight. But the surgeons think otherwise. Richard Welbourn, the clinical director of the Bariatric Group, calculates the answer thus: “If you have a Body Mass Index (a measurement based on an individual’s height and weight. A healthy BMI is anywhere between 18.5 and 24.9.) of 40 and you are seven stone overweight, it would be like walking across the Atlantic and running five marathons. That is the straight calorie equation. And running marathons makes you hungry.”

Meanwhile, Alberic Fiennes, president of the British Obesity and Metabolic Surgery Society, says, “If you have a BMI of 40-something, and you’ve been that way for several years, it is overwhelmingly likely to be irreversible – whatever the thin people think.”

Eating, Fiennes says, is in part an involuntary process: “It’d be like asking someone to hold their breath for 15 minutes. Most people can do it for one minute, or two minutes, or maybe four minutes if they’ve been doing diving practice. But 15 minutes? You can’t. You have to breathe. And when you breathe, you gasp.”

“There is a moral stigma to obesity,” continues Fiennes. “These people are seen as weak, and stupid and greedy. But obesity is a disease.”

Fiennes believes it is outrageous that we aren’t carrying out more bariatric surgery. There is, it seems, a postcode lottery with many primary care trusts and commissioning groups refusing or hugely restricting access. Last year, around 4,000 bariatric operations were carried out on the NHS. Yet, according to the guidelines set out by Nice (The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence), adults with a BMI of 40 or over (or a BMI of 35 with co-morbidities) should be considered for surgery. That means – shut your eyes for a minute before reading this frightening figure – 1.2 million people in the UK are eligible. We really are becoming a nation of whales.

There is no doubt that bariatric surgery, when carried out with the right medical and psychological pre- and post-operative care, can be hugely beneficial. It prevents premature death, vastly improves quality of life and is very cost-effective for the NHS (a recent study showed that 85% of severely obese patients with diabetes no longer suffered from the disease two years on from surgery). Dr David Haslam, a GP and the chair of the National Obesity Forum, says “I’ve seen hundreds and hundreds of people’s lives transformed by bariatric surgery. It is positively life-saving.”

Nevertheless, bariatric surgery should be treated with extreme caution – as should any operation that entails removing or drastically curtailing a vital organ of the body. And while surgery opens some doors, it also sometimes seems to close others. A very low calorie diet maintained over months or even years is going to be a painful and uphill road, impossible to keep to without enormous amounts of moral support. But why would anyone – patient or health carer – persevere on such a programme when a permanent surgical remedy is available?

Take the case of Justine, a 49-year-old journalist who weighs over 20 stone (127kg). She has had weight problems since the age of four, when her teenage mother first put her on a diet. Two years ago she went to her local GP surgery to join up with Counterweight, an NHS-funded diet programme that provides one-to-one support to people wanting to lose weight.

This is Justine’s story: “The nurse said, ‘I can’t see you – you are too heavy for Counterweight.’ She told me that if you are over a certain weight or BMI, they send you to hospital. So, I went to my local hospital – it was a very strange meeting. I went along to see the doctor for what I thought was a meeting about Counterweight. He said, ‘What we find is that people of your age and weight find it impossible to keep the weight off. The only answer is surgery.’

I said, ‘That seems a bit radical. Do you have any other solutions?’

He said, ‘Well, not really, but would you like to see the dietician?’

“About seven and a half months later, I finally get the meeting with the dietician and I get on the scales and she was talking about surgery. And I said, ‘Is there no other option?’

She was very surprised. She said everybody wanted it – they were biting her hand off to get surgery. And I was apparently a good contender. Surgery: that was all they were interested in.”

So she went along to have her hand held, and all they wanted to do was cut her open?

“Yeah,” she says bleakly. “Something like that.”

There is a madness in our mindset about food. How can we have got so fat? How can we have failed so dismally to get so many people to eat properly? A lot of work on healthy eating is already done in schools and in GP surgeries, but the message isn’t getting home. How can it when food that is bad for you is so much cheaper, crunchier and more convenient?

Hopefully one day, when we have banned crisps and all orange breadcrumbed food, we will look back on today as the Dark Age Of Obesity. Maybe by then we will also have finally developed a safe appetite-suppressant drug and bariatric surgery will all but disappear. There is a precedent for this – when the drug cimetidine became available in the late 1970s, patients stopped being routinely given gastrectomies for gastric ulcers.

In the meantime, desperate patients can always travel to Rome for their nasogastric tube. Over a crackly telephone line I ask Dr Gasparotti about the Diet Tube diet. “It’s not a diet,” he says quickly. “It’s wrong to call it a diet. It is a nutritional protocol. A very strong motivational therapy.”

What’s so wrong with diets?

“Diets take too long. You say to these people, ‘It is very important, so keep to this diet and come back and see me in three or four months.’ They can’t do it. They go out to supper with a friend. They eat. But I say to them, ‘Give me 10 days of your life, OK? In 10 days you will have lost between 8% and 10% of your body weight. Don’t worry. You will get thinner. It is mathematical! It’s biochemical, OK?’”

OK.

“So it’s a fast – but with proteins. And as there are proteins, you don’t lose any muscle. You will eat nothing because you won’t be hungry. You won’t have any inconvenience. You can carry on working. You can have a shower, you can go swimming. We don’t recommend going to the gym for the first week, but these people don’t go to the gym anyway. And…” He pauses before the punchline: “You slim while you sleep!”

Gasparotti explains that Diet Tube was originally devised for the very overweight – for “enormous obese people who couldn’t even move”. He says, “We don’t just give it to anyone. You have to be over 18 and in good health. If I began to give it to girls who just wanted to lose two or three kilos, they’d shoot me!”

But a minute later he adds, “Understand. It is obvious. I have to say that in rare cases…” – at this point I can almost hear him rolling his eyes – “unmotivated people who aren’t able to move around much and are very lazy and want to lose eight or nine kilos. Well, of course one can do it for them, too.”

So if I get on a bus in Rome, will I see people with tubes in their noses? “It’s become a pretty common thing now. You see lots of lawyers and businessmen going about the city with their tubes and their briefcases.”

Isn’t that a bit extreme?

“Look,” he says darkly, “our life today is very neurotic, very fast. Nobody looks after themselves.”

Has he tried Diet Tube himself?

“Yes! Stavo benissimo. I felt happier. It was euphoric making.”

Like a medieval saint on a fast?

“Well, yes! Once, there was a week of fasting at Lent. And you only ate fish on Fridays. That’s all gone now.”

 

guardian.co.uk © Guardian News & Media Limited 2010

Published via the Guardian News Feed plugin for WordPress.

Resveratrol pills may mimic effects of exercise and low-calorie diet

November 4, 2011

grapes

Resveratol has been known for some time to be of benefits to a healthy life-style. Recent studies have uncovered additional qualities that may encourage more persons to add resveratrol to their diets. Reducing blood sugar is a wonderful metabolic side effect that can benefit the millions of people diagnosed with diabetes. So perhaps resveratrol deserves a closer look at…..

http://www.yepod.com/?p=17431

Pass it on,

Dr Anthony


Powered by Guardian.co.ukThis article titled “Resveratrol pills may mimic effects of exercise and low-calorie diet” was written by Nic Fleming, for The Guardian on Tuesday 1st November 2011 16.08 UTC

Taking supplements of a substance found in grape skin can lower sugar and fat levels in the blood and reduce blood pressure, according to a small study.

Scientists who gave tablets containing purified resveratrol to obese men found it had some metabolic effects similar to those from exercise and calorie restriction, including lowering blood pressure and blood sugar levels.

Research in animals over the past decade has suggested the compound can slow the development of age-related diseases and increase lifespan. However, these studies have attracted growing criticism and have yet to be replicated in humans.

“The effects of resveratrol were modest but they consistently point towards beneficial metabolic adaptions,” said Prof Patrick Schrauwen of Maastricht University in the Netherlands, who led the new study. Although the chemical is found naturally in grape skin and red wine, there is no suggestion that it would be possible to ingest enough of it from these sources to gain the beneficial effect.

Prof Schrauwen and colleagues gave 11 obese men either a daily 150mg resveratrol supplement or a placebo for 30 days. Four weeks later, the two groups swapped over so that those who took the supplements first time around were given placebos and vice versa.

Regular measurements showed resveratrol lowered blood sugar levels and improved insulin sensitivity, as well as cutting triglycerides – fats found in the blood that can increase heart disease risk. Resveratrol also reduced both sleeping and resting metabolic rate and cut blood pressure.

Previous research has shown that calorie restriction can extend lifespan in laboratory animals. Some studies suggest it also offers protection from diseases such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, though this remains controversial.

Calorie restriction works in a similar way to resveratrol, by triggering the production of a protein called SIRT1 which improves metabolic function and keeps cells healthy in the face of stress.

Muscle biopsies carried out by Prof Schrauwen’s team confirmed that participants taking resveratrol saw increased SIRT1 levels. They also strongly suggested the beneficial effects on metabolism were associated with improved functioning of mitochondria, the energy factories within cells.

“Healthy people are good at switching efficiently from using fat as an energy source to glucose in the blood when it becomes available,” said Prof Schrauwen. “The results of our pilot study tended to suggest that might be part of the link to the beneficial health effects of resveratrol, but that needs further study.”

The results are published in the journal Cell Metabolism.

Prof Schrauwen, acknowledging that his sample size was small, said he was seeking funding for a larger and longer trial. “This is small, proof of principle study, but the results are so promising that I think it is important that we conduct a bigger study,” he said.

guardian.co.uk © Guardian News & Media Limited 2010

Published via the Guardian News Feed plugin for WordPress.

Diabetes epidemic affects 350 million as crisis spreads to developing nations

June 25, 2011

McDonald's In India

Don’t wait for the symptoms to appear? Get your blood sugar levels checked to determine if you are at risk of developing diabetes….Are you watching your blood sugar levels? Make an appointment today with your physician to see if your body is controlling your sugar adequately…its a simple blood test…take control of your health today!

Pass it on,

Dr Anthony

Yepod.com  


Powered by Guardian.co.ukThis article titled “Diabetes epidemic affecting 350m – and western fast food is to blame” was written by Robin McKie, for The Observer on Saturday 25th June 2011 15.59 UTC

More than 350 million people in the world now have diabetes, an international study has revealed. The analysis, published online by the Lancet on Saturday, adds several tens of millions to the previous estimate of the number of diabetics and indicates that the disease has become a major global health problem.

Diabetics have inadequate blood sugar control, a condition that can lead to heart disease and strokes, as well as damage to kidneys, nerves and the retina. About three million deaths a year are attributed to diabetes and associated conditions in which blood sugar levels are disrupted.

The dramatic and disturbing increase is blamed by scientists on the spread of a western-style diet to developing nations, which is causing rising levels of obesity. Researchers also say that increased life expectancy is playing a major role.

Type 2 is the most common type of diabetes, accounting for about 85-95% of cases, and is often tied to obesity. It develops when the body fails to produce enough insulin to break down glucose, inflating blood sugar levels. Type 1 diabetes is a separate auto-immune disorder.

“Diabetes is one of the biggest causes of mortality worldwide, and our study has shown that it is becoming more common almost everywhere. It is set to become the single largest burden on world health care systems,” one of the study’s main authors, Professor Majid Ezzati, of Imperial College London, told the Observer. “Many nations are going to find it very difficult to cope with the consequences.”

This point was backed by Martin Tobias of the ministry of health in New Zealand in an accompanying editorial for the Lancet. As he states, there is “no worldwide surveillance network for diabetes, as there is for communicable diseases such as influenza”. Given the inexorable rise in case numbers that is now occurring, there was now “an urgent need” to establish proper monitoring of the disease, he added.

The study – funded by the World Health Organisation and the Gates Foundation – analysed blood from 2.7 million participants aged 25 and over from across the world over a three-year period. Doctors measured levels of glucose in their blood after they had fasted for 12 to 14 hours – blood sugar rises after a meal.

If their glucose level fell below 5.6 millimoles per litre, they were considered healthy. If their reading topped 7, they were diagnosed as having diabetes, while a result that ranged between 5.6 and 7 indicated that a person was in a pre-diabetic state. Crucially, the study found that the average global level of glucose measured this way had risen for men and women.

The team then used advanced statistical methods to estimate prevalence rates among the participants. It was estimated that the number of adults with diabetes was 347 million, more than double the 153 million estimated in 1980 and considerably higher even than a 2009 study that put the number at 285 million. “We are not saying the previous study was a bad one,” said Ezzati. “It is just that we have refined our methods a little more.”

In percentage terms, the prevalence of male adult diabetics worldwide rose from 8.3% to 9.8% in that period, with adult females increasing from 7.5% to 9.2%. As to the causes, the team attribute 70% to ageing and 30% to the increased prevalence of other factors, with obesity and body mass the most important.

It was found that in the US glucose levels had risen at more than twice the rate of western Europe over the past three decades. In wealthy nations, diabetes and glucose levels were highest in the US, Malta, New Zealand and Spain, and lowest in the Netherlands, Austria and France. Despite its obesity epidemic, the UK’s diabetes prevalence was lower than that of most other high-income countries. In a league of 27 western high-income countries, British men had the fifth lowest diabetes rates, while British women were eighth lowest.

Other badly affected countries included many Pacific island nations. As Ezzati put it: “There has been an explosion of cases there.” In the Marshall Islands, for example, one in three women and one in four men has diabetes. Saudi Arabia was also reported to have very high rates. Glucose levels were also particularly high in south Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean, central Asia, north Africa and the Middle East. The region with the lowest glucose levels was sub-Saharan Africa, followed by east and south-east Asia. Eastern Europe’s diabetes prevalence, while not low, also changed little over the three-decade period.

“Diabetes is a condition that is linked to long-term disability and we need to monitor how it is spreading very carefully or face the consequences.”

The Lancet article comes after scientists said type 2 diabetes could be reversed in as little as seven days if sufferers went on a crash diet. Adherence to a strict 600 calorie-a-day diet causes fat levels in the pancreas to plummet, restoring normal function. Professor Roy Taylor, of Newcastle University, called the discovery a “radical change” in understanding type 2 diabetes.

• This article was amended on Saturday 25 June to make clear the distinction between type 2 diabetes, which accounts for between 85-95% of cases and has been linked to lifestyle, and type 1 diabetes, which is a separate auto-immune disorder.

guardian.co.uk © Guardian News & Media Limited 2010

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Obesity in middle age increases risk of dementia

May 16, 2011

obesity

A discovery of the master switch gene(KLF14) linking diabetes and obesity related diseases has been found by scientists (go to Yahoo.com for more information)…wow I say that is great news….perhaps this can give us a clearer picture and perhaps a cure for metabolic diseases in the future…keep you fingers crossed….below is an article linking dementia and diabetes…

Pass it on,

Dr Anthony

Yepod.com 


Powered by Guardian.co.ukThis article titled “Obesity in middle age increases risk of dementia” was written by Alok Jha, science correspondent, for The Guardian on Monday 2nd May 2011 19.00 UTC

People who are obese in middle age are at almost four times greater risk of developing dementias such as Alzheimer’s disease in later life than people of normal weight, according to a study released today.

The study, published in the journal Neurology, examined data on more than 8,500 people over the age of 65. Of the sample, 350 had been diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease or vascular dementia and a further 114 had possible dementia.

Scientists used records of the participants’ height and weight in the decades before and found that those who had been overweight in middle age had a 1.8 times (80%) higher risk of being diagnosed with dementia in later life. But for obese people, classified as those having a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or above, the risk soared. People with midlife obesity had an almost four times (300%) higher risk of dementia.

“Currently, 1.6 billion adults are overweight or obese worldwide and over 50% of adults in the US and Europe fit into this category,” said Weili Xu of the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, who led the research. “Our results contribute to the growing evidence that controlling body weight or losing weight in middle age could reduce your risk of dementia.”

According to the Alzheimer’s Society, around 750,000 people in the UK suffer from dementia, more than half of those with Alzheimer’s. By 2021, a million people will be living with dementia.

Obese people are classified as those with BMI greater than 30, overweight people are those with a BMI between 25 and 30. Between 20 and 25 is classified as normal. Almost 30% of those in the study, 2,541 in total, had been either overweight or obese between 40 and 60 years of age.

“Although the effect of midlife overweight on dementia is not as substantial as that of obesity, its impact on public health and clinical practice is significant due to the high prevalence of overweight adults worldwide,” said Xu.

Susanne Sorensen, head of research at the Alzheimer’s Society, said: “This robust study adds to the large body of evidence suggesting that if you pile on the pounds in middle age, your chances of developing dementia are also increased.By eating healthily and exercising regularly, you can lessen your risk of developing dementia. Not smoking and getting your cholesterol and blood pressure checked regularly is also very important.”

Xu agreed that healthy living in middle age can help to reduce a person’s risk of developing dementia in later life and added that a person’s experience of education also played a role in the rate of decline of the brain. “Based on this data, every one year in higher education is associated with about 10% reduced risk of overweight and obesity, and 8% decreased risk of dementia.”

Exactly how excess weight can influence the degradation of the brain is not certain, but Xu said there could many possible mechanisms. “Higher body fat is associated with diabetes and vascular diseases, which are related to dementia risk,” she said.

In addition, fatty tissue is the largest hormone-producing organ in the body and it can produce inflammatory molecules which may affect cognitive functioning or the process of neurodegeneration.

Sorensen said that further research was needed to find the links between being overweight and dementia. “One in three people over 65 will die with dementia, yet research into the condition is desperately underfunded.”

The Alzheimer’s Society has launched the Drug Discovery programme, which it says could lead to new treatments for dementia within a decade. Scientists will screen compounds that have already been licensed for other conditions, to see if they have any effect on the causes of Alzheimer’s disease.

Jeremy Hughes, chief executive of Alzheimer’s Society, said not enough clinical trials for dementia were taking place in the UK. “We need £4,000 every day for the next 10 years for the first phase of this groundbreaking initiative, and we are asking all those concerned with dementia to help us raise this. Together, we can transform hundreds of thousands of lives.”

guardian.co.uk © Guardian News & Media Limited 2010

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